原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.kayuce.cn 翻译:大司空 转载请注明出处

One important element of the $738 billion National Defense Authorization Act for the Fiscal Year 2020, which US President Donald Trump signed into law in mid-December, is the directive to examine and monitor "Chinese military activities in the Arctic, as well as Chinese foreign direct investment in the Arctic."

在美国总统特朗普12月中旬签署的《2020财政年度国防授权法》中显示,美国将耗资7380亿美元,其中一项重要内容就是关于审查和 监测“中国在北极的军事活动,以及中国在北极的外国直接投资”。



The administration in Washington is right to be concerned about China''s increasing interest in the northern polar region. Two years ago, Beijing published a White Paper outlining its Arctic policy, which includes creating a "Polar Silk Road." If fully implemented, this policy will challenge the United States and Russia for primacy in the region, where beneath the glaciers lie vast quantities of coal and natural gas.

华盛顿政府担心中国对北极地区的兴趣越来越大是正确的。两年前,北京发表了一份概述其北极政策,其中包括创建一条“极地丝绸之路”,如果这一政策得到全面实施,将会挑战美国和俄罗斯在北极的领导地位,众所周知,北极冰川下蕴藏着大量的煤炭和天然气。

Two Chinese polar icebreaking research vessels, Xuelong and Xuelong II, are presently carrying out the regime''s 36th scientific expedition in the waters off Antarctica. The crews of these vessels will help complete China''s fifth Antarctic scientific station for the gathering of data and establishment of under-the-ice submarine deployments similar to those operated by Washington and Moscow.

两艘中国极地破冰研究船“雪龙号”和“雪龙二号”目前正在南极附近海域进行第36次科学考察。这些船员将帮助完成中国第五个南极科考站的建设,以收集数据和建立类似于美国和俄罗斯的冰下潜艇部署。

China''s Dalian Naval Academy supports an aggressive strategy for both the northern and southern polar seas. China''s Ministry of Defense and State Council continue to publish papers expressing a desire to pursue a robust maritime program, including a "Freedom of Navigation" mission in the Bering Sea, slated for some time in 2020.

中国大连海军学院支持在南北两极海域采取积极的战略,中国国防部和国务院继续发表文件,表示希望推进一项强有力的海上计划,包括定于2020年在白令海执行“自由航行”任务。



Beijing-administered airports in Greenland, however, could pose a strategic threat to America''s ally, Canada. Also at risk under such a scenario would be the US military facility in Thule, Greenland, which serves as an early-warning node for a nuclear attack on the North American continent. To counter this potential threat, the Trump administration and fellow NATO member state, Denmark -- which owns Greenland -- have preempted China''s plans by agreeing to finance the proposed airports. But China''s drive for eventual primacy in the Arctic region also extends to the Danish-owned, self-governing network of the 18 Faroe Islands, located midway between Norway and Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean.

如果格陵兰岛机场由中国建造掌控,可能对美国的盟友加拿大构成战略威胁。在这种情况下,美国设于格陵兰岛(图勒)的军事设施也面临风险,它是北美大陆遭受核攻击的早期预警节点。为了应对这一潜在威胁,特朗普政府和和同为北约成员国、格陵兰岛的所有者丹麦通过同意为拟议中的机场提供资金,打乱了中国的计划。但中国通过在北极地区争夺主导地位的努力,也将势力延伸到归属丹麦,但拥有自治权、位于挪威和冰岛之间的北大西洋的法罗群岛,该群岛有18个主要岛屿。

The US and China currently are competing for influence in the Faroe Islands, with Beijing offering to increase the importation of fish on condition that the islanders agree to utilize China''s wireless network system with fifth-generation technology (5G) administered by Huawei, and Washington attempting to block the use of Huawei networking equipment on the islands due to the company''s intelligence-gathering cooperation with the Chinese regime.

美国和中国目前正在争夺对法罗群岛的影响力,中国提出增加鱼类进口,条件是岛民同意使用华为掌握的5G网络系统,而美国则试图阻止这些岛民使用它,因为他认为华为与中国在情报收集上有合作。

Although China is a latecomer to great-power competition in the Arctic, its Arctic profile could rise quickly if Moscow pools its efforts with Beijing. The Russian Air Force has long had a separate branch for polar aviation, and Russia maintains an extensive nuclear- and diesel-powered fleet of icebreakers. China''s friendly relations with Russia could lead to a powerful polar alliance.

尽管中国是北极地区大国竞争的后来者,但如果俄罗斯和中国共同努力,中国在北极地区的影响力可能会迅速提升。长期以来,俄罗斯空军一直有一个单独的极地航空分支机构,而且拥有大量的核动力和柴油动力破冰船舰队。中国与俄罗斯的友好关系可能导致一个强大的极地联盟的出现。

If Moscow works in tandem with Beijing, China could emerge quickly as a potent competitor for influence in the Arctic. Let us hope that Washington is able to prevent this from happening.

如果俄罗斯与中国合作,中国可能很快成为北极影响力的有力竞争者。美国能否阻止这种情况发生,让我们拭目以待。